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10 extinct and beautiful corals




Just like the exploitation of other natural resources, corals too are subject to threats like pollution, artificial dying, bleaching, over harvesting, and major storms. Acidic seas are the latest talk among preservers. More than half of 82 species of coral being evaluated for inclusion under the Endangered Species Act more likely than not would go extinct by 2100 if climate policies and technologies remain the same, federal scientists concluded. Efforts are being made to prevent them from exploitations both natural and man-made. We listen down some 10 species that are beautiful yet not a part of restored ones.

1.     Honeycomb Coral

Its distinct look makes it quite popular in reef aquariums and that perhaps is the major reason why it si exported in large quantities from Indonasia where it is mostly found. This is sadly a reasson why their species is at a risk of becoming rare. Threats to honeycomb corals (Favites abdita) include damage caused by fisheries, pollution from agriculture and industry, human developments, recreation and tourism. The beautiful salt water corals can be totally lost if not preserved under proper harvesting.

2. Elegance Coral

Just as the name suggests, they are beautiful in green and pink and is undoubtedly an elegant addition to any reef tank. I would personally be a proud owner of this coral if I could get it for my tank. Elegance coral faces many threats that are affecting coral reefs globally. These include increasing pressure on coastal resources, follow-on from human population growth; and technological expansion, such as motorized scour, and dynamiting and poisoning on reefs to collect fish, which annihilates reefs. The bunt of these major reasons are compounded by the effects of excessive domestic and agricultural waste in the oceans, poor land-use practices that result in an increase in sediment running on to the reefs, and over-fishing, which can have ‘knock-on’ effects on the reef.

3.Parasimplastrea Coral

Parasinplasrea Corals are mainly found in Indian Ocean and Arabian and Iranian Gulfs. The cyclones in these areas could be one of the major reasons that are making this species of beautiful brown and green corals endangered. This species is classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List and listed on Appendix II of CITES. Efforts are being taken on a global level to prevent them from becoming extinct but their population is highly decreasing which is an alarming threat for the species.

4. Mushroom Corals

Popcorn shrimp and pipefish live among this coral, hiding from their predators. Mushroom coral is bizarre among corals because its polyps are either male or female, and because it is a brooder, meaning that it broods and gives birth to larvae. Because of its attractive looks and the good hiding places it provides, the aquarium trade is its biggest threat, with about 44,650 wild pieces being exported from Indonesia each year. Other threats include human impacts like poor land management practices that are releasing more sediment, nutrients and pollutants into the oceans and stressing the fragile reef ecosystem.

5.Horastrea Coral

This stunning coral is exceedingly rare, found only in certain areas of the Western Indian Ocean. It faces a number of threats. According to EDGE, “Current threats to the population include destructive fishing, over fishing, pollution from sewage and coastal run-off, Crown-of-Thorn starfish, cyclones and coral bleaching.” Horastrea coral is massive in size and found in sandy reef areas. They are classified as vulnerable (VU) and efforts are being made to help their restoration.

6. Ctenella Coral

This endangered coral is found in a part of the Indian Ocean and are becomind alarminly rare. They forms green, cream or light brown solid, reef-building colonies that are shaped like half-globes and have highly convoluted valleys, in characteristic wavy patterns. The major threat to this species is global climate change , with temperature extremes leading to coral bleaching. During bleaching, the symbiotic algae are expelled, resulting in weak and vulnerable corals that are susceptible to disease.

7. Pearl Bubble Coral

These are the sole member of its genus, Physogyra lichtensteini is a large coral, its colonies reaching up to three metres in diameter,and is usually pale grey or sometimes dull green in colour. They are immensely beautiful. The species have become rare due to factors like disease, invasive species, overharvesting, destructive fishing practices, development and pollution. The weakening of these corals in oceans are recorded to be massive.

8. Crisp Pillow Coral

They form small, low, mound-like colonies that grow up to about 20 cm in height. In common with other colony-forming corals, the colonies are comprised of a vast assemblage of tiny, soft polyps, each of which is equipped with numerous tentacles that direct food into a central mouth. Global rise in sea temperature is the main cause of this sopecies under stake of becoming extinct soon.

9.Elkhorn Coral

Elkhorn corals are among the fastest growing corals on reefs, and are excellent reef-builders. They form bush like structures, some with short non-dividing branches like the fingers of a hand. Elkhorn corals are considered to be environmentally sensitive corals that require clear, well-circulated water. Unlike other corals, which can obtain sustenance from zooplankton, staghorn corals are almost entirely dependent on the zooxanthellae for food. This means that sunlight is essential, and they are particularly sensitive to any human activities that increase water turbidity, reducing light availability.

10. Pillar Coral

They are listed as vulnearble and are stunning with pillar like growth. These tall pillars, reaching up to three metres in height, often have a coarse outer shell when the drab, olive-coloured polyps are open during the daytime. Unfortunately, this species has a low rate of immature survivorship, meaning that it is slow to recover from disturbances, such as fisheries, human development, pollution, and invasive species, placing its future survival at even greater risk.